Afro-Asian Sand Snake ( Psammophis schokari )

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Scientific Name: 
Psammophis schokari ()
Regional Names: 
Afro-Asian Sand Snake
This species is mostly found in Rajasthan (Jodhpur), There is a single record of it in Gujrat (kutch) which needs confirmation.
Venom Type: 

This species has a long, Slender body with smooth scales. Outer edges of belly scales are rounded. Head is elongate and tapers towards front, it is slightly broader than neck and possesses a disctinct ridge between top and side of head. Eyes are large with round pupil. Tail is long.

It is ususally cream, pale brown or grayish in color. Back has four broad, ribbon-like, dark brown stripes along entire length of the body and tail. 

Top of head has even, dark brown markings and stripe running from snout tip along entire side of head. Lip scales are white and spotted, with black color. 

Belly Scales and those under tail yellowish with thin black line paired spotsof the same color. Middle of underside may even be bluish-gray, reddish or blackish. Variations include (i) Cream, Pale Brown or Grayish Back, without broad dark brown stripes - only their dotted, black outlines remain. (ii) Uniform cream, Pale brown or grayish back; underside yellowish. Juveniles resemble adults.

Supralabial 8 (4th and 5th touching eye) or 9 (5th & 6th touching eye); elongat loreal; preocular 1, touches frotnal; postocular 2, rarely 3; Temporal 2+2 or 2+3. Frontal long and Narrow, Distinctly longer than its distance from end of snout. Anterior end twice as broad as middle.
Scales in 15, 16 or 17:17:11, 15 or 13 rows.
Ventrals 164-187.
Sub Caudal: 
Subcaudal 118-134, Paired. Anal divided or undivided.
It is found in a variety of dry habitats like Sandy deserts with scant vegetation and even on beaches (not in India). Has been found under rocks, at the base of small bushes like Euphorbia, or seen basking on low bushes in the morning.
Natural History: 
A captive specimen was seen excavating a shallow hiding place by moving loose sand. Another, that was lightly colored when caught, became darker after being kept for three days on a dark verandah. Color change in snake seems to be rare. Female lays 4-10 eggs in Mach-July.
Feeds on lizards, geckos and occasionally small birds.
Bite symptoms: 

It has grooved fangs. Venom quickly immobilizes prey. In humans, the bite can cause pain, swelling and bleeding but no serious symptoms have been reported. 

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