Wall’s Sind Krait ( Bungarus sindanus walli BOULENGER, 1897 )

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Name
Scientific Name: 
Bungarus sindanus walli (BOULENGER, 1897)
Photographs: 
Top Body Shot
Distribution: 
At present its distribution is assumed patchy across north-west, east and central India. These include dry parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, north Bengal, dry parts of Maharashtra etc. Also recorded from Nepal.
Family: 
Characteristics for identification: 

Pale shiny yellow lower lip and neck is main superficial feature to recognise or differentiate it from Common Krait (B. caeruleus). Otherwise it shares more or less similar features later which are blue-black dorsum covered with fine milky white bands, head scalation and hexagonal vertebral scales. For presiece differentiation mid body count is key and most robust character. 

Description: 

Length:
Generally it is about 4ft in common sighting but can grow upto 6.5ft.

Dorsal:
Body slender or mildly triangular with glossy smooth scales of blue-black range, covered with usually unpaired milky white bands which get forked on lower flank sides. Bands start from neck region in the form of oval white patchs in distant series, attain band form on going towards mid body and become most prominent on posterior two-third to half.

Ventral:
Underside milky white or yellow-white which may extends to flower dorsal rows. Old individuals may turn off white underside.

Head:
Head depressed with rounded snout, slightly distinct from neck. Eyes entirely Black. Entire lower lip and upper lip including lower portion of rostral and supralabials glossy yellow which gives appearance of snake having yellow and black head. However juveniles can have normal white coloration throughout underside.

Tail:
Shorter than typical range, pointed and ends with a pointed tip. Typical white Bands present in almost all specimens and more clear than mid body bands.

Scalation
Head: 
Supralabial 7, 3rd & 4th in contact with eyes; preocular 1, in contact with posterior nasal hence loreal absent; nasal pit pink; postocular 2; temporal 1+2.
Dorsal: 
Scales smooth in 17 mid body rows. 9th scale on vertebra largest than adjacent scales and have hexagonal shape.
Ventral: 
220-237; anal undivided (entire)
Sub Caudal: 
45-53, undivided (entire).
Habitat: 
Found in low to moderate elevation of semi-desert of Maharashtra, and moist and dry deciduous forests of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
Natural History: 
Like all krait species, Wall’s Sind Krait is exclusively nocturnal and active only at night. It remains hidden in dark and silent places during day time. Roosts in other animal mounds, under heavy rocks, caves, holes, loose roots of vegetation, leaf litter, piles etc. Due to norcurnal activity bite case from this species are more at nights. In unpublished observations behaviour of this species is found to be more aggressive and uncertain than Common Krait (B. caeruleus). It has been observed that it try to bite even at daytime with more sharp attacks without any proper sign. It flattens whole body with loose "S" shaped loop on ground and show aggression where it can bite its offender. Activity preferably terrestrial but in search of food it can climb upto good heights including walls of rural area houses, huts and old trees etc.
Diet: 
It mainly feeds on almost all Kind of snakes including other Kraits and Cobras. Other animals include rodents, frogs and lizards.
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